The Milky Way galaxy's arms grew from a collision with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, a new study suggestions. CHEMISTRY OF THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF GALAXY: A TOP-LIGHT INITIAL MASS FUNCTION, OUTFLOWS, AND THE R-PROCESS Andrew McWilliam1, George Wallerstein2, and Marta Mottini2 1 The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA; andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu Previous simulations of the Sgr dwarf's orbit have relied on a number of more-or-less unsatisfactory work-arounds, such as treating the Galactic potential as fixed, and possibly augmented by dynamical friction (Velásquez & White 1995; Johnston et al. Dynamical friction against the Galactic halo has only a modest effect on a body of this mass. The most recent acquisition was the Sagittarius dwarf, which joined us 7 billion years ago. At one extreme the Dwarf initially possesses 10^{11} Solar Mass and starts from a Galactocentric distance 200 kpc. However, some astronomers contend that Sgr dSph has been in orbit around the Milky Way for some billions of years, and has already orbited it approximately ten times. In its looping, spiraling path, it has passed through the plane of the Milky Way several times in the past. In this context it is important to understand how the Sgr dwarf has avoided being torn apart by Galactic tides. From top to bottom the panels correspond to the panels from left to right in Fig. Table 2 summarizes a series of orbits computed using the semi-analytic model. Hence the orbit must initially have had a large apocentre, and therefore have been a long-period orbit. At such a large radius it could have possessed the extensive halo that alone would make it massive. Hence, if the mass of the Sgr dwarf were initially as small as it now probably is, its orbit would not have evolved very much, and it could never have possessed a generic dark halo. An initial density profile of the Sgr dwarf (i) as an analytic function (curve), (ii) as initially sampled (triangles), and (iii) after 2.1 Gyr (squares). A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 1000 up to several billion stars, as compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars. What process is most responsible for shaping the large-scale structure of the universe? The Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy (Sgr dSph for short) is the most massive among dSph of the Milky Way (with a mass of around 400 million solar masses). Authors: Ing-Guey Jiang, James Binney (Submitted on 3 Aug 1999) Abstract: Possible orbital histories of the Sgr dwarf galaxy are explored. The data currently in hand constrain the present orbit of the Sgr dwarf quite tightly. Its ability to retain some coherence despite such strains would indicate an unusually high concentration of dark matter within that galaxy. Its orbit is found to have galactocentric distances that oscillate between ≈13 and ≈41 kpc with a period of 550 to 750 million years. At the end of each orbit the Sgr dwarf has been stripped down to ≲2×109 M⊙, a mere 2 per cent of its initial mass. However, Sgr dSph still has coherence as a dispersed elongated ellipse, and appears to move in a roughly polar orbit around the Milky Way as close as 50,000 light-years from the galactic core. We analyse an N-body simulation of the interaction of the Milky Way (MW) with a Sagittarius-like dSph (Sgr), looking for signatures which may be attributed to its orbital history in the phase space volume around the Sun in light of Gaia DR2 discoveries. The nearest galaxy to our own, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy was discovered in 1994, at a distance of only 24 kpc. 3 from N-body simulations (full curves) and from the semi-analytic model (dotted curves). The initial conditions are chosen to illustrate the constraints that must be satisfied if the Sgr dwarf is first to reach a Galactocentric radius r± 16 kpc in a time, tsink, of order 11 Gyr. At the other extreme the Sgr dwarf starts with ∼109 M⊙ and RD(0) ∼60 kpc, similar to its present apocentric distance. Key words: Galaxies: individual: Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal; Planetary nebulae: extra- Some even claim that the 10,000 times more massive Milky Way’s trademark spiral structure might be a result of the at least three known crashes with Sagittarius over the past six billion years. Resolution of the visible Sgr dwarf into ≳100 particles implies that individual particles have masses ∼106 M⊙, so ≳2×106 such particles are required to represent the Galactic halo. 2008). Ibata & Lewis (1998) find that acceptable orbits have periods ≲1 Gyr and are moderately eccentric, with apocentres near 60 kpc and pericentres near 20 kpc. Little by little we are completing the puzzle of the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. This is evidence for increasing mass-loss rates on the AGB.Peak mass-loss rates are indicated of∼ 10 −4 M ⊙ yr 1. The rates and time-scales are calculated for a single lens mass population of 1 M . The model of Ibata & Lewis is attractive because we know that dark matter contributes significantly to the potentials of dwarf galaxies. Ibata R. A. Wyse F. G. Gilmore G. Irwin M. J. Suntzeff M. B.. Johnston K. V. Spergel D. N. Hernquist L., Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Hence it will be less uniformly spread over the sky than the dark matter. This fine tuning would not detract from the plausibility of the model if it arose naturally as the Sgr dwarf's orbit and the density profile were fashioned by Galactic tides and dynamical friction against the Galactic halo. It also exhibits an age-metallicity relationship, in that its old populations are metal poor ([Fe/H] = −1.6 ± 0.1) while its youngest populations have super-solar abundances. [18][19], A 2020 study concluded that collisions between the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and the Milky Way triggered major episodes of star formation in the latter, based on data taken from the Gaia project. V. Variation of the Metallicity Distribution Function along the Sagittarius Stream In 1999, Johnston et al. TRUE OR FALSE: There is a 109 M¤ black hole at the center of the Milky Way that is rapidly accreting stars and gas. concluded that Sgr dSph has orbited the Milky Way for at least one Gya and that during that time its mass has decreased by a factor of two or three. Numerical simulations suggest that stars ripped out from the dwarf would be spread out in a long stellar stream along its path, which were subsequently detected. If, by contrast, the Sgr dwarf started out much more massive, its orbit could have evolved from the large Galactocentric radius. 4 show how the mass of the Sgr dwarf declines during the simulations. 1997). 4 shows, for the orbits shown in Fig. TRUE OR FALSE: If the sum of the mass and energy density in the universe yields W 1 then the universe will recollapse in a Big Crunch. If the dark halo model of Ibata & Lewis is correct, the current mass of the Sgr dwarf is ∼109 M⊙. One of our neighbouring galaxies is dying, and it is the Milky Way’s fault. The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy has smashed through the galactic disc of the 10 000 times more massive Milky Way for the first time about six billion years ago. 3, plots of MD as a function of t. The full curves are obtained from the N-body simulations, and the dotted curves from the semi-analytic model. The extent, rt, of the Sgr dwarf is the radius of the largest sphere, centred at the last position of the Sgr dwarf's centre, within which the mean density of all particles, Sgr dwarf and Galactic, exceeds the mean density of the Galaxy within the Galactocentric sphere that touches the centre of the Sgr dwarf. Surveys like the Mass Assembly of early Type gaLAxies with their fine Struc-tures (MATLAS, Duc et al. Sgr dSph appears t… Since we know that the Sgr dwarf is now on a short-period orbit, it must have lost significant orbital energy. By Adam Mann Oct. 9, 2020, 8:00 AM The Milky Way hasn’t been kind to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Also, they did find evidence for the first time for two distinct populations in alpha abundances as a function of metallicity. The radial grid-points move so that roughly equal numbers of particles lie in each interval of the radial grid. In the absence of potential softening and tidal limitation, the initial configuration of the Sgr dwarf would be a self-consistent equilibrium. Orbits obtained by full N-body simulation (full curves) and those obtained with the semi-analytic approximation (dotted curves). Zhao (1998) suggested that a close encounter with the Magellanic Clouds could have led to this loss of orbital energy. 1995; Ibata & Lewis 1998), studying only orbits that never reach far out into the Galactic halo, and using more massive particles for the halo than for the Sgr dwarf (Gómez-Flechoso et al. At each time- step, the mass distribution due to Galaxy particles is determined on the Galaxy grid. TRUE OR FALSE: If the sum of the mass and energy density in the universe yields W 1 then the universe will recollapse in a Big Crunch. Secondly we have used a small number of large N-body simulations to calibrate semi-analytic calculations that include dynamical friction and tidal stripping, and have used the semi-analytic calculations to explore more thoroughly the parameter space associated with the initial Sgr dwarf and its orbit. The observed internal velocity dispersion places an upper limit on the Sgr dwarf's central mass density, so to maximize the Sgr dwarf's mass one has to pack the material around the Sgr dwarf's edge. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) astronomers have detected 18 very metal-poor stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies that orbit our Galaxy. In 1999, Johnston et al. The corresponding potential is then found and used to calculate the forces that the Galaxy imposes on each Sgr dwarf particle. Therefore we assume that the initial density profiles of both the Sgr dwarf and the Milky Way are given by, In the semi-analytic model we consider the Sgr dwarf to be a particle of variable mass that moves in a fixed potential and suffers drag as a consequence of dynamical friction. [20], Coordinates: 18h 55m 19.5s, −30° 32′ 43″. The initial configurations from which these simulations start are specified by columns 2 to 6 and the rows labelled A, F and K of Table 2: column 2 gives the initial mass that one obtains by integrating the initial density profile (equation 2) with the values of the characteristic radii given in columns 4 and 5. Indeed, the observed elongation of the Sgr dwarf perpendicular to the Galactic plane is thought to be the result of tidal shear. Finally, the mass distribution owing to Sgr dwarf particles is determined on the Sgr dwarf grid, and the corresponding potential found and used to calculate the forces on Sgr dwarf particles from Sgr dwarf particles.