Avena sativa, or the common oat, is a popular cereal grain that has been consumed for thousands of years. It can easily be customized and can be for children or adults. Can you use glycerin and no alcohol to make a milky oats tincture? so you don’t have to thaw it all at once. Constituents Carbohydrates, silicic acid. That’s it, congratulations, your tincture is going to be stronger and smarter and prettier than all its predecessors, and you and your family will have healthy nervous systems and a feeling of general well-being. You can do it either way, just as long as you don’t burn out your motor with too heavy plant matter. Together these three minerals support bone strength, resilience, and resistance to breaks as well as general hair, skin, and nail vitality. I also read a comment that said that tincturing of horsetail is a waste of both the alcohol and of the herb. Process in food processor with 1/2 cup of vodka to break up the milky oats a little so that they tincture easier and stronger. Glycerite 1:2 ratio- 120-140 drops, 2-4x a day. Oatstraw is a highly beneficial nervine and nutritive. Combine equal parts of your dried herbs in a pint-sized jar. We often suggest milky oat preparations (primarily tinctures – glycerin or alcohol based)) for those prone to anxiety, dealing with trauma, or overcoming addictions. 4. 5.0 out of 5 stars 2. • Close the lid of the cup and let it soak for 15 minutes. Well done! You can find it in some health food stores and on the Internet as a powder, juice, tincture or as a tea. Same with pregermination. Yes, the tincture recipe you made is about 1:3 40%, which should be just fine. Thats stuff is a toxic poison. I am surrounded by woods so chip monks are a big problem for me as they dig up even my green bean seeds. “Milky” refers to the whitish goo (latex) that comes out of the fresh, unripe seed when you squeeze it. How much should we take? The ratios for mixing the tincture are exactly the same, as are the rest of the steps in the recipe. Oatstraw can also be incorporated into nourishing herbal tea blends as well as bath and body formulations. Is it a glycerite instead of an alcohol tincture? Appreciate you sharing all this great info on milky oats! Are you a wholesale account holder? Luscious Locks Alcohol-Free Extract, Glycerite Amla,Hibiscus, Stinging Nettle, Horsetail, Reishi Mushroom, Oatstraw. Tissue salts have silica too. If there’s really a ton, it implies that your milky oats had a higher water content than expected and to use less alcohol next time around (or do 2 versions), but any herb that is also a good tea herb will have some amount of undissolved solute sitting at the bottom of the jar. A tincture of milky oat tops is an excellent medicine for the frazzled, the burnt-out, and the just plain exhausted. In folk medicine, oats were used to treat nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and "weakness of the nerves." Hi I got several bottles of milky oat tincture from Natures Answer because it doesn’t look like i’ll be getting a chance to grow my own soon. Add 2 teaspoons of dried herb to 1 cup of hot water and allow to steep for 15 minutes or more, sweeten with raw honey if desired. Hawthorn/Oat Straw Herbal Infusion. About sowing,have you thought of pre-germinating the seeds? The herbs should almost fill the jar, but not be crammed too tightly. So 12 liters of that would be yum,plus really good for me. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The recipe is simple – follow the steps above, but instead of using alcohol, use apple cider vinegar or glycerin. Once Ive waited the right amount of time,Im putting the pulp through my slow juicer,which is very powerfull to get the juice out. Thanks! Taken as an extract the typical dosage of oat straw is around 2-3 tsp to 1 cup of boiling water and then leave it for 10-15 minutes before drinking. I want to make sure my tincture is sufficient thank you! I checked several areas in the bed and most are in the right phase, so I stripped them into a bag…harvested probably 2/3 of the crop which weighed in at almost 3 pounds of just the tops–will harvest the rest of the milky oats tomorrow and the oatstraw in a couple weeks maybe, not sure when is best. If you would like to make a larger batch for storage, parts can be tablespoons or cups. For tea lovers, using herbal tea is better than using infusion alone. One thing I’ve found that works well for dosing is to start at a higher dose–which it sounds like you have–and then decrease the dose over the course of a week or so until you’re at the lowest dose where you still feel an effect. Cover and let steep at … Remember that minerals are not soluble in alcohol, only in water. January’s Garden Tip: Now is the time to plan! Oat straw, oat bran and oatmeal all possess medicinal qualities in their own rights but as a nervine, milky oats are hard to beat. Its flowers consist of inconspicuous spikelets, each floret containing 3 stamens, and a feathery stigma. I am sure that it will keep separating like this no matter how much I mix it. Oatstraw is the name given to the stem of the oat plant harvested during the milky oat stage, when it is still green. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It is a nurturing rejuvenator to the nervous system, stress response, and adrenal glands; the minerals your body needs for your heart, muscles, bones, and nerve transmission to work well; kidney and liver function; and it bestows a feeling of general well-being to those of us lucky enough to bask in its welcoming green glow. I will keep checking in the days to come and see if they are increasing or decreasing in quantity of milky ones. Oat straw tea is a delicious way to include this healing herb into your diet. Ingredients You know it’s time when the white goo (latex) comes out of the seed when you squeeze it. Oat straw is a sturdy natural product, which enhances the capabilities of the brain. Strain into a clean bowl and add honey, stirring until melted. Also really like the site in general, thanks! Whether or not you can still do it this year depends on climate–where do you live? Hey and thanks! I do almost everything in a cool, dark place, because I think a long, slow brew ends up stronger and more complex than a fast brew–but this is my personal medicine-making feeling, not herbal gospel. Often it’s sold by the 50 lb sack or other incredible amount that you will probably not be able to use, but both times I’ve had to go that route I was able to talk the nice person behind the desk into measuring me out less. 2.) If the species is Avena sativa, then yes it’s the same. Oat straw tincture and tea have long been used to treat conditions such as headaches, migraines, shingles and fatigue. If you’re wondering how much glycerin you’ll need, I used almost one 16 oz. Any thoughts would be appreciated. I’ve been avoiding it altogether, will have to read up a bit more… Yes was glycerate & alcohol it says on bottle. Due to its small dosage, a milky oats tincture will not impart significant minerals or other nutrition. You can also take the tincture, but just be sure to look for milky oat tincture – this means that the oats were harvested at a time when the seed yields a milky substance when crushed. Or are you blending the milky oats, then adding it to the alcohol? I live in tropics so none growing conveniently around me. Thank you! What should I do for this? Size. Oat Straw (Avena sativa): The delightful light green “straw” of the oat plant has approximately three times more calcium, five times more magnesium, and 67 times more silica than oatmeal. I made a batch of milky oats tincture in August using your recipe and instructions. 3. Bark Harvest & Advanced Tincture Making: Fall Intensive Schedule, Create Your Own Botanical Sanctuary: Learning from the Land, Essential Herbs for Toddlers & Young Children, How to Choose Safe, Effective Herbal Remedies for Toddlers & Young Children, Choosing Remedy Forms for Toddlers and Young Children, Indispensable Preparations for Toddlers and Young Children, School of Plant Medicine Registration Open, Starting Medicinal Seeds: March Garden Tip, Identifying Lookalike Forest Plants: June Wild-crafting Journal, Long, Cool Spring Survival: June Garden Tip, Iced Tea & Ice Cubes: July Medicine Journal, Summer Meadows: August Wildcrafting Journal, Supporting Garden Allies: August Garden Tip, New England Aster: September Wildcrafting Journal, Cover Crops for Herb Gardens: September Garden Tip, Long Distance Clients: Phone Hours Expanded, Announcing Radical Family Herbalism Column in Plant Healer Magazine, Garden Tip of the Month: Starting Medicinal Plants from Seed. Strain into a clean bowl and add honey, stirring until melted. Following is the easiest way to make oat straw tea at home. Different tincture ratios and menstruum percents will affect your dose, as will the strength of the medicine itself (affected by weather, bugs, etc. Wait for the little tail to just appear and put them on the ground. Combine equal parts of your dried herbs in a pint-sized jar. I mash it down with a big spoon or a muddler or similar tool, and that will get out any significant air that’s trapped in your tincture. Pour boiling water over the herb. Do you think it’s ok to pour it all back in my blender, blend, then pour it back in my jars? Strain liquid in bath for external use in the case of neuralgia and irritated skin. What concentration of alcohol did you use? I have been brewing it fresh as a tea, but I am wondering about making a tincture of it to carry me through the winter. Was presented in a an applicable format that was concise and easy to follow. You can also hang up some burlap to help provide some shade, then take it down when the weather cools. Thanks so much for all the great information and recipes! Once I scared a fawn out of my oats, where her mother had hidden her for the day. Kevin, Change ). Review of “Herbal ABC’s,” Dr. Sharol Tilgner’s new Herbal! I just made a milky oats tincture and used 11oz. Cover and let steep at … Fill with almost-boiling water to the top. Then decant and squeeze out the herb. I am in Australia thats all so postage has to be affordable for me. Oat Grain is a great example of a plant that is both a food and a medicine. If you don’t have the right hoe you can use a hard rake, but then please get yourself a good hoe with your tax refund. For small batches I recommend using a potato ricer, which you can buy for $10 at any kitchen store. That said, a reasonable dose to start at with a safe, long-term-use herb like oats is 1-2 dropperfuls 2-3 times per day for several days, then reduce by a dropperful at a time until you find the lowest effective dose. Good question. As an alcohol tincture, the typical dosage is 3-5 ml 3 times each day. If you are making a small amount, then parts can be teaspoons. Thanks again! The whole plant is referred to as 'oatstraw.' Next year get them fresh! Or should I just go ahead and compost them? Before planting oats, use a scuffle hoe or stirrup hoe to make the soil as level and fine as you can get it, even if the soil was recently tilled. It works in following ways. You might consider putting it through the food processor first and freezing it in portions appropriate for tea, infused honey etc. In a large pot, bring water and herbs to a boil and let bubble for 23 minutes. You mentioned earlier (above) to start high and bring amount down over the week to find a dose that works for you. Oat straw or dried milky oat seed makes a delicious and nourishing herbal infusion, especially when paired with nettles. Thank you for sharing! How to to create herbal extracts including oils, tinctures, glycerites, salves, poultices, infusions and more. Avoid this for the long-season Brassicas like cabbage and brussels sprouts because the oats will be cut down long before those crops are ready. In Europe, oat straw is a long-trusted additive to soaps and skin conditioners. Soak the seeds for 24 hours in water,depending on the time of year. lol. Dec 31, 2014 - Make an easy nettle and oat straw tea infusion for a natural source of calcium and drink a cup daily as part of your arsenal to help strengthen your bones. To prep the bed by hand, turn the soil with a shovel, weeding as you go; when the soil is as turned as it’s going to get, follow instructions below. Directions. Or just let it sit and do its magic? A typical dose is 1-2 ml, 1-3 times per day. First time I’ve grown them, and so far so good. As porridge for someone greatly weak, unable to eat much food . For a tincture, I would typically use somewhere from 1 to 3 mls in a day and in a formula it will often only take up about 10% of the space occupied by the combination of herbs. The tincture i made and only got 3/4 of a liter tasted like baileys Irish cream. Milky oats are favored among herbalist for those is weakened, depressed, debilitated state. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Not only a formidable food, it is also sought after for its nutritive and gentle calming qualities. That sounds like a great idea! Luscious Locks Alcohol-Free Extract, Glycerite Amla,Hibiscus, Stinging Nettle, Horsetail, Reishi Mushroom, Oatstraw. Make another, maybe with dried or partially dried chickweed. Clinical Skills Apprentice: Online & In Person this Winter! Really the BEST Oatstraw tincture on market! Im hoping to make some this year as I missed out last year. You can also take the tincture, but just be sure to look for milky oat tincture – this means that the oats were harvested at a time when the seed yields a milky substance when crushed. That should help lower the cost of the medicine and help you find a balance with how much medicine you’re taking. Good luck! Then decant and squeeze out the herb. You can also hang up some burlap to help provide some shade, then take it down when the weather cools. Oat straw can be found online or at your local health food store in tea, capsule, tincture, extract, cream, and salve form. This has worked very well for me and the oats just grows right up thru it. ( Log Out / Oat (Avena sativa) is beloved as a restoring, nutritive nervine tonic (medicine whose effects build slowly over time). An email will be sent to the address below containing a link to verify your email address. I could put in a clean blender, but it may lose its strength if i take it out of the jar. It also makes a stronger tincture, but you’ll still have a milky oats tincture even if you don’t use the blender. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. It is prized amongst herbalists for its gentle and supportive nature. Hello from across the pond, from Sunny Scotland! Here’s another heart-healthy recipe that’s perfect on a hot afternoon! Oat is a short-season, cool weather crop. for fresh milky oats you want a high alcohol content, so most likely you shouldn’t be cutting your alochol with water unless you’re using grain alcohol. How do I make that? You don’t have to bury the oats, they’ll germinate just fine on the surface as long as they are pressed into the soil. 5.0 out of 5 stars 2. Mulching heavily with straw helps keep the soil cooler. The goo is only there for a short time as the plants mature, so you have to check it regularly once the seeds appear and be ready to tincture. They’re still oats. There are many nutritional and health benefits found in the oat grain itself and it is often attributed to having the same soothing and nourishing effects as the oatstraw tea and the milky oats tincture. I wondered if i might ask you about amounts. Well done! Let it sit for 4 to 6 hours to pull the minerals into the solution. Since I can’t see it to give you a definite answer, I suggest experimenting a little; experience will teach you which weirdo jar contents are okay and which aren’t. When I made mine, I only had the three herbs listed in my stash at the time, so that’s what I used. I love all of the information and encouragement in your writing. This is your finished tincture. Holly cow, really, I heard that it was carcinogenic, I take weird things to like chlorine (MMS2) for infections that won’t budge & borax for muscular skeletal health but never heard that one. Putting it in the fridge for a couple hours or spreading it on a drying rack would be better. Hi I love your article as well as everyone else! Also, the sunlight provides a light heating that speeds up the tincture brewing process–it’s much faster. Good instincts on your improv! I shared my homemade chewable vitamin recipe for kids (or adults) in the past and while that is definitely the crowd favorite at our house, I also wanted to share my herbal liquid vitamin recipe.. See more ideas about Oat straw, Herbalism, Herbs. Drinks. How long do you leave the pulp in the Jar before getting juice out? Leave the greens standing so you can harvest oat straw later in the month (which you will harvest by cutting it down with pruners or a scythe, then dry for tea or tincture fresh at 1:2 75% for your future happiness and health–instructions on tincture-making here). Oat Straw (Avena Sativa) also known as Common Oats and sometimes referred to as "avena". Ingredients It’s the constituents that didn’t dissolve in the menstruum. Although this is one of the main uses for this plant, various parts of the plant, such as the young seed and the oatstraw, are nutritive and have nervine qualities, and have long been a favorite among herbalists. I plant short-season Brassicas north of the oats, because it’s sunny when the weather is cool, and by the time the oats are tall enough to cast shade over the Brassicas, the weather is warm enough that without a little shade I’d be fretting about the broccoli bolting before it sets nice florets. I made my tincture this past June, i have just pressed it and let it settle in the jars. I was going to strain out the precipitated part, but wondered if i am remvong the medicine when doing so? My question is this: I have so much and am tincturing a gigantic half gallon mason jar full and infusing some, but I wonder will freezing them preserve the magic? Another thing you could do is make your own; even if you can’t grow it yourself right now, you might be able to find someone else who’s growing it and will sell you some when it’s fresh, usually late spring or early fall. 1 part Oat Straw. I made the tincture…and it worked a little. Hence the tea of the oatstraw is a better building tonic than the tincture. In a large mason jar (that holds around 1 litre) add 4 tablespoons of nettle leaf and 2 tablespoon of oat straw. Thank you, and thank for this blog; it is very informative. Im aiming for 12 liters of finished product,but who can tell. Does that help? Put the oatstraw in a quart-sized canning jar or a saucepan with a lid. I just made my first tincture ever. Just measure out the proportions, then mix it up! PrecautionsNo known precautions. Kevin that’s so exciting! 95 ($8.74/Fl Oz) $4.95 shipping. After one month, strain it out, squeezing as much out as you can. bottle to make my 4 jars. Oat Straw Tea 50g from Indigo Herbs is derived from the highest quality Oat Straw. NOTE: The links above are for Amazon, and they are for bulk herbs. Thank you. Step 3. 5.) 1 part Ginger. silica degrades when dry. Our chickens planted some oats in our zucchini patch, we are making use of them by harvesting them before the seeds are viable for planting. it should say on the label. Use a hard rake or your hands to spread the oats as evenly as possible. Check out the article on weight to volume tinctures, and on solubility. $34.95 $ 34. Fill your herb jar about 40% full with hot water (don’t consider the top 1-2 inches part of the jar- fill it up to 40% of the jar minus that top inch).. Then, fill it up the rest of the way with food grade glycerin (again, leaving 1-2 inches at the top).. The Avena sativa plant is comprised of a seed (oat), leaves and stems (oat straw) and bran (the outer layer of the whole oats). Cover and steep overnight (or between 4 - 12 hours). This gentle restorative herb is for those that are cold, depleted, or tired, or for the type of person who drinks too much coffee and is chronically burnt out. Many health enthusiasts are aware of the benefits of oats and oatmeal. Succession Planting Oat is a great tool for succession planting, as it lays down a beautiful nitrogen-rich weed-free layer of mulch for your hot season crops. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. I think this is the biggest barrier to making a Milky Oats tincture: where do you get fresh Milky Oats? Additionally, he suggests a foot bath in oatstraw for tired feet. Here’s another heart-healthy recipe that’s perfect on a hot afternoon! but food grade i take every day. This floret matures into the oat that is edible, and at the immature stage, exudes a white milky substance (referred to as 'milky oats') and harvested for its nutritive value. It’s much more likely to be mold or something microbial if you used a lower alcohol concentration than a high one. Introduction Oat straw is, as its name suggests, the above-ground parts of the oat plant left after harvesting the grain. The information on this site is my opinion only and is not intended to diagnose any disease or otherwise step outside the scope of practice of someone writing online for public consumption. Here in Vermont, the climate is often too harsh to pregerminate very early spring seeds like oats. Green oat herb or oatstraw preparations have been used traditionally in Europe since the Middle Ages to boost mental capacity and as a restorative. (you can also use a French Press and adjust the amounts depending on how large your container is). Definitely don’t dehydrate, all the water soluble constituents will go and you’ll fry the plant. How can I get the milk to interact from the seed pods without blending the already 3 days in of the tincture. I recommend tilling the ground in the fall for a few reasons: 1. you can get your seed in the ground literally as early as possible in the spring, mud be damned; and 2. it buys your crop a head start against last year’s weed seeds, especially grass. It seemed way too thick so I dumped the rest of the vodka in totaling 1 liter which I think is about 36 oz. Cover and steep overnight (or between 4 - 12 hours). Oat Straw Extract 5. Now I have the know how! Taken as an extract the typical dosage of oat straw is around 2-3 tsp to 1 cup of boiling water and then leave it for 10-15 minutes before drinking. I just strained the batch a few days ago and the tincture has since separated, dark olive colored liquid in the top three quarters of the mason jar with milky green matcha latte colored thicker seeming liquid below. Constituents Carbohydrates, silicic acid. If you are making a small amount, then parts can be teaspoons. That’s if you’re making your medicine at something like 1:3 75% or so. Due to COVID we are 2 to 3 weeks behind. There is also a long history of Avena Sativa having been used for the treatment of epilepsy. Dried Valerian Root. 1. Sounds too high in silica to me, Silica needs to slowly build up in the system, Just taking horsetail untinctured feels like glass in the system…, ❤ I believe you should boost more Instagram followers with SocialKingMaker.com assist! I usually leave the pulp in the jar for about 2 months, there’s more info about this at the end of the blog post about weight-to-volume tincturing. There are several species called “oats” but the one we use for medicine is Avena sativa, so just double check the species. I was recommended because I am lacking silica & for emotional stress. One thing the farmer pointed out is that when the oats are in the “milky” stage,there is lots of milk sap in the stalks,which feeds the seed. My veggies come out very dry from that,so Im sure I will get 95% of the goof stuff. Freezing kills so much good stuff within anything. We often suggest milky oat preparations (primarily tinctures – glycerin or alcohol based)) for those prone to anxiety, dealing with trauma, or overcoming addictions. Non Alcoholic Drinks. I didn’t know wether to get it but am desperate to stop picking this year once and for all, and while it’s never been on my goal list, It has arisen on there now…. If you’re lucky and the spring is long, you are likely to get a second cutting of Milky Oats in a few weeks. Milky oats have a high mineral and protein content which is savored in nutritive teas. or just under 4 1/2 cups and it still looks too thick. This blog is a labor of love. Consider a scarecrow, bells, or old CD’s on strings to keep the birds out of the oats, although there’s a certain amount of seed that the seed-eaters will take as their due for their brethren who eat pest bugs, mice, rabbits, etc. If you missed planting for this season, don’t despair! Thanks for the questions. The usual heirloom seed companies may have oats available too, I’m not sure but it’s worth looking around–I’ve been very happy with Fedco and haven’t felt the need to try other companies. in present-day Germany, considered oats to be one of a few of her favorite 'happiness' herbs alongside fennel, summer savory, licorice, and hyssop. I did some research and sounds like I can use both as medicine for tincturing milky oats…do you have any 2 cents on this? Preserving Water-Soluble Magic Beyond the Growing Season: Herbal Ice Cubes, Follow Old Ways Herbal: Juliette Abigail Carr, Registered Herbalist on WordPress.com. Dried Catnip. Anyway, if it’s not mold, it’s probably phytochemicals that can’t join with alcohol. Just tossed handfuls in a 3 x 12 raised bed in my community garden plot. 1.) Tincture Recipe: 1 part lemon balm; 1 part skullcap; 1 part lemon verbena; 1 part oat tops and oat straw; Brandy, enough to cover all ingredients; This recipe uses “parts” as measurement. Congratulations! Oats have been cultivated since ancient Roman times as feed for horses. I appreciate that such things are an individual thing, but in your experience, is there a good place to start? 3. That will preserve it. If i’m going to be spending a lot for along time on this milky green oat tincture I want to at least get one thats done properly . Thanks again! In women’s health we cherish oat for its properties as a mineral rejuvenator and protector against adrenal exhaustion–goodbye postpartum depression! Thanks. Yes, it’s fine to pour the whole shebang into the blender. Awesome! Also known as Oat Straw, the herb is derived from young, green oat stems; Avena Sativa Tincture is the active constituents of the herb extracted into ethanol (medical alcohol) This traditional method maintains and preserves the naturally-occurring constituents found in the plant. For large batches I use a small cider press. Sandoval a frappé 106 home runs, et dispose d’une impressionnante moyenne au baton . Oatstraw infusion (not tea, not tincture, not capsules) provides lots of protein, all macro- and trace-mineral in high amounts, and very high amounts of B vitamins - excepting vitamin B12. Mulching heavily with straw helps keep the soil cooler. I think that’s enough rhapsodies about it–here you are, reading my blog and being internet savvy, which means you are able to follow these links to more information about the medicinal uses of Milky Oats so we can get down to business on how to make medicine with it: 7Song’s article, Kiva Rose’s article, Jim McDonald’s article, Henriette Kress’s blog. I will try to post a picture of this next month when it happens, but in the meantime check out Juliet Blankespoor’s beautiful pictures or just search for it. For instance today I purchased several bottles cheaply but they said “Wild milky oat tincture”… In grain alcohol. Oat straw helps against inflammation by boosting cognition. • You can consume this oat straw tea 3 times a day. I drink dried oatstraw in my tea every day, dried oats are still nice. Will this diminish the medicinal state of the the milky tops? Oat is in the grass family (Poaceae) and it does reasonably well against all the nasty invasive grasses I’m always fighting to get out of the gardens. Do you sell any? Tincture – fresh milky oat seed tincture: 60-90 drops 3-4 times/day; Safety considerations: If you have a known allergy or hypersensitivity to oats or plants in the Poaceae family, avoid utilizing this herb. I planted mine last week, but I’m in Vermont so if you live in a warmer climate you probably missed out for this spring. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Generally speaking, plant oils and water-soluble constituents don’t dissolve in alcohol, so they tend to stick around, either as precipitate in the bottom of the jar, as a film on the surface, or as a gooey glob floating in the jar (you see this with slippery elm and marshmallow–it looks like snot–don’t tincture plants that do this, you’re not getting the good stuff). I think that’s about 7 dropperfuls, which is a high dose of anything, but especially a gentle tonic meant for long-term use like milky oats. Dried oatstraw can be used in a variety of ways including in bath and body care recipes, steeped as tea, or made into a liquid extract. It’s simply too cold here to put most seedlings in the ground that early because they can’t withstand the shock of freezing nights, although direct seeding of many crops works beautifully.